Boliden is working with systematic reviews of the actual energy and CO2 emission trends, to identify possible improvements and efficiency measures. The overall objectives are to stabilise CO2 emissions and to identify sustainable solutions for reducing them. Boliden’s work in this area focuses primarily on direct emissions.

The current stabilisation target has led to an increase in the focus on and following up of energy use and CO2 emissions. The 2014-2015 investments in Garpenberg contributed to more efficient energy use, and hence decreases in CO2 intensity. The 2016 acquisition of the open pit operation in Kevitsa has increased CO2 intensity, but Boliden will still work towards achieving the set stabilisation target of 0.77 t CO2/t metal in 2018.

Using the best available technical solutions, using resources efficiently, and replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones will all be important components of Boliden’s efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. All units are also obliged to work continuously on making improvements to process efficiency.

Local actions plans are also being drawn up with the aim of reducing diffuse emissions (ore dust or emissions from open converter plants that are spread on the wind). The aim is not only to reduce emissions, but also to improve both the monitoring and management thereof. Stricter legislation is anticipated in this area.

EN15 Direct greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1)

Boliden reports this indicator for the units over which it has operational control. The direct carbon dioxide emissions arise primarily from the use of carbonaceous reducing agents, from fuels in metal extraction processes, and from the use of fuels for mining operations and road transportation within the company.

The direct emissions are calculated in accordance with the procedures laid down in the WBCSD GHG Protocol, together with additional guidelines from the EU and/or national authorities.

Note. Data in this GRI Report were compiled before the EU-mandated ETS reporting to the national authorities. The CO2 reporting within the framework of ETS is carried out in accordance with separately audited procedures in each country, and although we seek to report the same data, we cannot guarantee that the Group’s GRI disclosure will correlate exactly to the CO2 data reported within ETS.

Carbon dioxide emissions (Scope 1 + Scope 2), 
2016 per source

The total reported CO2 emissions are 0.998 (0.889) Mtonnes 
for the year.


EN16 Energy indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 2)

Boliden reports this indicator for the units over which it has operational control and includes only production-related indirect emissions. Commencing in 2015 Boliden has begun using location-based emission factors. This is an adaptation to the updated GHG Protocol Guidelines for Scope 2 reporting. The calculation is made by multiplying the energy used with the production mix for the specific region. The production mix should be as current as possible, and Boliden uses emission factors published by International Energy Agency. For the 2016 reporting, the following emission factors were applied: for the operations in Sweden 13 (12), Finland, 175 (135), Norway 8 (8) and Ireland 435 (457) g/kWh. The aggregated CO2 intensity for Boliden reference year of 2012, however, is at a similar level as by the previous calculation method, and the Group CO2 target has consequently been retained, also after the adjustment to the location-based emission factors.

Carbon dioxide emissions,

Scope 1+2, tonnes




Direct emissions, (EN15)




Indirect emissions, (EN16)




Total (EN15 + EN16)




EN18 Greenhouse gas emission intensity

Boliden’s GHG intensity was 0.69 (0.65) t/t metal, corresponding to a significant increase from the previous year. The GHG intensity is reported as the product emission intensity (metric tons of CO2 emissions per unit produced). The same principles as those used for calculation of energy intensity (EN5) apply. Boliden only includes CO2 gas in the GHG intensity.

Greenhouse gas emission intensity

t CO2/t metal


EN19 Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

The GRI definitions state that this indicator should reflect reductions of CO2 emissions identified under EN15-16. The reductions result is estimated from reported energy savings and energy efficiency initiatives reported in EN-5 and EN-7.

Boliden strives to deliver the excess heat from its processes for use in district heating, whenever possible. The heat supplied by Boliden Bergsöe, Boliden Rönnskär, Boliden Kokkola and Boliden Harjavalta in 2016 corresponds to 260,000 t/a of CO2 (Scope 1) if the same amount of heat had been produced from a fossil fuel source.

Boliden is also, over and above these measures, actively initiating attempted reductions in fossil fuel emission by means of fuel substitution tests, participation in demonstrations of electrified road transports, and improved heat recovery/exchange with the aim of phasing out the use of fossil fuels for heating purposes.

Boliden is a co-owner of a production company for wind-based power, VindIn AB, which builds and operates wind farms in Scandinavia. The purpose of VindIn is to take a longer-term approach and to deliver low-cost, renewable electricity. VindIn currently produces about 300 GWh in its three wind farms in Sweden and Finland.

EN21 Other significant air emissions

Other significant air emissions deriving from Boliden’s operations are sulphur oxides, metals and dust. The most common of the sulphur oxides (SOx/SO2) is sulphur dioxide, and Boliden generally uses the expression ‘sulphur dioxide’ to describe this emission. The figures for sulphur dioxide presented in the table are divided into emissions from stacks and calculated emissions from fuel used in both stationary and mobile equipment and the use of explosives. The figures for metals and dust include the emissions from stacks but exclude diffuse emissions. Boliden measures or calculates NOx emissions at several units, but the methods to account NOx currently differs too much to allow the emissions to be aggregated at Group level.

Diffuse emissions are generated at both mines and smelters and the environmental impact is due to dust particles containing metals being dispersed by the wind. All operations are working systematically to reduce particle emissions to air, e.g. by enclosure of dust-generating equipment and by salting and watering roads. The diffuse emissions are monitored but are difficult to quantify in an aggregated manner.

Emission reduction efforts

Boliden’s efforts to reduce emissions are based on an overall analysis of the environmental impact. The impact and risk assessments are revised on a regular basis, as are the measures to be taken. The work is controlled and conducted by each individual business unit, as local circumstances may differ. Follow-up at Group level is conducted on a monthly basis.

Sulphur dioxide emissions to air are mainly attributable to gases generated during the smelting processes at the Harjavalta and Rönnskär copper smelters. The amount of sulphur dioxide emitted during the process depends on such factors as process stability and the efficiency of the gas cleaning systems, and, to some extent, on the amount of sulphur in the raw material. One way of reducing emissions is, therefore, to control the smelting process and to allow emission levels to be a factor when deciding which raw material to smelt. The monitoring and control of abatement systems for effective gas cleaning is important work and is carried out continuously.

The ongoing work focuses on process stability and improvement and/or replacement of technology. The emission of metals to air during the previous target period (2007–2013) decreased, mainly due to well-performing abatement systems and stable processes with few disruptions.

Emissions to air are mainly based on periodic monitoring in accordance with such standards as SS-EN 14385, or other applicable standards. Emissions from fuel are calculated using the fuel properties data provided by the supplier. Accredited laboratories, both internal and external, are used for the analyses of samples taken on site.

Emissions to air (tonnes)








SO2, indirect emissions from fuel




Particulate matter




Metal emissions to air (me-eq)

126   88   100  

Metal emissions to air (mass)